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WTO Working Papers

WTO working papers usually represent research in progress. Such research may be conducted in the preparation of WTO Secretariat reports, studies or other material for WTO members. The papers are circulated for comment because the WTO considers critical review of professional research to be extremely important.

English

Can Economic Sanctions be Effective?

While economic sanctions may be attractive policy tools for governments wanting to express discontent with a country's behaviour, it is arguable if from an economic perspective sanctions can achieve the change that is often envisaged through the punitive measures taken. In fact, the literature does not present conclusive evidence that economic sanctions are an effective policy instrument. Nevertheless the number of sanction episodes is on the rise and have increasingly gained in popularity in recent years. What can explain that?

English

Keywords: trade sanctions, trade theory and policy, conflict, national security, international relations
JEL: F13: International Economics / Trade / Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations; F51: International Economics / International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy / International Conflicts; Negotiations; Sanctions; F53: International Economics / International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy / International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations; F52: International Economics / International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy / National Security; Economic Nationalism
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