WTO Working Papers

WTO working papers usually represent research in progress. Such research may be conducted in the preparation of WTO Secretariat reports, studies or other material for WTO members. The papers are circulated for comment because the WTO considers critical review of professional research to be extremely important.


The Impact of Services Liberalization on Education

Evidence from India

This paper studies the impact of services liberalization on education and the gender education gap at the district level in India. We focus on the time period 1987 to 1999 and three services sectors - banking, insurance and telecommunications - which were all state monopolies, have been heavily liberalized in the time frame studied, have relatively high shares of female employment and require high education investments. Our hypothesis is that the national-level liberalization spurred higher investment in education, particularly girls’ education, in districts with higher employment growth in these key services sectors.


Keywords: liberalization, Services, education, gender, India, inequality
JEL: L80: Industrial Organization / Industry Studies: Services / Industry Studies: Services: General; F63: International Economics / Economic Impacts of Globalization / Economic Impacts of Globalization: Economic Development; O12: Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth / Economic Development / Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development; J16: Labor and Demographic Economics / Demographic Economics / Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination; I24: Health, Education, and Welfare / Education and Research Institutions / Education and Inequality
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