Gone are the days when trade policy decisions were settled by one or two government ministries and conveyed with little ceremony to parliament and the public. Evolving views and practices on participatory decision-making, along with a policy-making environment that continues to grow in complexity, have changed the manner in which national trade policy is formulated. The number of governmental authorities and agencies implicated in national trade policy dialogues has multiplied, and so too has the number and diversity of non-state actors (NSAs) laying claim to a say in policy deliberations.1 This array of parties, including both business and civil society organizations (CSOs), will frequently be pulling governments in different directions. They will also make greater efforts in some policy contexts than others.

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