Increased synchronization and globalization of macroeconomic shocks

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This section describes the increased synchronization and spread of macroeconomic shocks in the last few years after what appeared to be a general moderation of volatility. It examines the role of global value chains in the transmission of macroeconomic shocks and looks at how export structures influence volatility. It describes how the economic crisis spread from developed to developing countries and how a coordinated response helped to limit the use of protectionist measures in the wake of the crisis. Despite suffering the greatest economic downturn since the 1930s, the world did not see a widespread resort to protectionism. Among other explanations for this was the existence of a set of multilateral trade rules.

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